Pharmaceutical firms, chemical companies, contract testing facilities, and some cosmetics manufacturers are bad news for millions of animals locked in their laboratories. But when it comes to cruelty, some cause even more pain and misery than others.
To name the worst of the worst, we’ve looked at the number of animals the companies killed, the most painful and invasive experiments conducted, how far they lag behind industry animal protection standards, their refusal to use available non-animal test methods, and their appalling histories of federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA) violations.
1. Paul Kirchgraber, Covance
As the world’s largest breeder of dogs destined for suffering and pain in experiments—and as the biggest importer of primates for experimental purposes in the U.S.—Covance and its chief executing officer, Paul Kirchgraber, is the worst CEO for animals in laboratories. Covance is a contract testing company that tests everything from drugs to industrial chemicals to cosmetics ingredients for client companies. In Covance’s tests, caustic chemicals are dripped into the eyes of animals and experimental substances are applied to their raw and abraded skin. They have been forced to ingest or inhale deadly toxins, and experimenters have intentionally induced cancer in animals.
Thankfully, a number of Covance facilities have recently shuttered and downsized because of lack of demand for the company’s cruel services. But its wholesale abuse of animals continues. In recent years, Covance has been repeatedly cited for violations of federal animal-protection law. Monkeys have been housed in such frigid conditions that they developed frostbite. A rabbit was scalded to death when the cage in which she was housed was run through a cage washer—while she was still locked inside. One dog who had a chronic food-restrictive device implanted in her body had lost 30 percent of her bodyweight during a Covance study, but she was provided with no documented medical care for her severe weight loss. A dehydrated monkey had not eaten for several days, because—it was eventually discovered—her leg was trapped in the back portion of her cage. Another monkey had been caged alone for nearly eight months, with no shred of explanation for why this animal was being denied companionship.
PETA’s shocking eyewitness investigation of Covance’s now-defunct Vienna, Virginia, laboratory—which prompted federal citations and a fine for violations of federal animal-protection law—revealed that workers struck, choked, and tormented monkeys and that sick and injured monkeys received no veterinary care. Video shows hard plastic tubes that were violently forced up the nostrils and into the stomachs of terrified juvenile monkeys, causing choking, gagging, and daily bloody noses. Primates were driven mad by psychological trauma and the barren laboratory conditions and circled frantically in their cages, pulled out their own hair, and chewed on their own flesh.
In 2016, the U.S. Department of Agriculture fined Covance $31,500, after 13 macaque monkeys died of hyperthermia in two separate incidents when no one noticed that thermostats had malfunctioned, causing the rooms to overheat.
PETA continues to expose Covance’s dirty secrets and push the company to close.
Help keep primates away from Covance by asking airlines that still transport them to laboratories to stop their participation in the violent industry.
2. James C. Foster, Charles River Laboratories
James C. Foster, CEO of Charles River Laboratories, peddles misery and death. Charles River makes its profits by breeding and selling millions of animals—from mice to monkeys—for use in cruel and invasive experiments in laboratories around the world. The world’s largest breeder of animals for use in experiments, Charles River supplies one of every two animals used in experimentation—which means that the company has a hand in fully half of all the pain, misery, fear, and distress endured by animals in laboratories. The company is the second-largest importer of nonhuman primates into the U.S., bringing in thousands of monkeys who have been stolen from their homes in the wild or bred on decrepit monkey factory farms. We don’t know how Foster sleeps at night.
Charles River also conducts painful tests on animals for companies that produce industrial chemicals, pesticides, food additives, and pharmaceuticals. In these tests, the animals are force-fed test compounds, have experimental chemicals smeared onto their shaved skin, and are forced to inhale toxic substances. The animals may endure severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions, seizures, paralysis, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and genitals before they ultimately die or are killed.
A summary of Charles River Laboratories’ AWA violations reads like a criminal indictment: inadequate veterinary care; failure to provide suffering animals with pain relief; inadequate housing, causing a high incidence of foot injuries in dogs; shoddy surgical methods resulting in the misery and eventual death of a dog; and failure to investigate non-animal alternatives to experiments involving severe suffering. Rabbits with skin lesions 4.5 inches deep were given no medical care, and unqualified personnel caused such severe injuries to monkeys’ fingers that the digits had to be amputated. At Charles River’s Nevada facility, 32 monkeys were baked alive when a thermostat malfunctioned and no one noticed. A monkey was scalded to death when her cage was run through a high-temperature cage washer—while she was still locked inside. Charles River posts annual revenues in excess of a billion dollars, but the company has apparently failed to institute simple safeguards to ensure that animals aren’t being burned and baked to death.
PETA continues to call on Charles River Laboratories to clean up its act, but clearly the company places profits before progress and compassion, and it does not even attempt to keep its callousness and greed a secret. It has stated in its annual report to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that “new technologies … models, methods, and systems that would replace or supplement the use of living animals as test subjects in biomedical research” are a “risk” to its business.
Help keep primates away from Charles River Laboratories by asking airlines that still transport them to laboratories to stop their participation in the violent industry.
3. Edison Liu, The Jackson Laboratory
The three blind mice of the nursery rhyme had it easy compared to the millions of mice who are bred, experimented on, and sold to other laboratories each year by The Jackson Laboratory (JAX). JAX genetically manipulates mice to be predisposed to developing cancerous tumors, becoming obese, having depressed immune systems, experiencing high levels of anxiety and depression, and to developing crippling diseases and other debilitating ailments. JAX has also bred mice who become paralyzed in one or more limbs.
What JAX does to animals—including during tests it conducts for other companies and universities—would violate cruelty-to-animals laws if it occurred outside a laboratory.
Animals are force-fed large quantities of experimental chemicals. As part of memory testing, mice are forced to swim in a pool of opaque water and must find a hidden platform to avoid drowning. Other mice are subjected to pain reflex tests in which they are placed on hot plates heated to 131 degrees to see how long it takes them to respond to the scorching heat.
Mice purchased from JAX by other facilities—3 million each year—have been addicted to drugs and then forced to suffer from withdrawal symptoms, including headshakes, body tremors, involuntary paw tremors, and writhing. They have sustained severe burns and repeated electroshocks. Experimenters have induced strokes, seizures, and spinal cord damage in mice purchased from JAX.
In 2017, after PETA filed a complaint with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) based on a whistleblower’s allegations of incompetence and neglect at JAX, NIH verified that the tips of mice’s tails were torn off, that cages containing mice slated to be euthanized were severely crowded—compounding the animals’ suffering—and that there have been chronic problems with leaking water bottles, which has resulted in soaked cages, compromising the welfare of the animals trapped inside. In addition, documents obtained by PETA through the Freedom of Information Act reveal JAX’s abysmal record of violations of federal guidelines. Mice left in precarious situations and forgotten have died from suffocation, starvation, and dehydration, and on multiple occasions, live mice have been found in the carcass bins of freezers meant for dead animals.
Mice are highly sensitive, intelligent, and social animals who suffer greatly in experiments. And yet, mice—along with rats, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and “agricultural animals” used in agricultural experimentation—are denied any protection under the AWA because these species aren’t considered “animals.”
JAX has received tens of millions of dollars in funding from NIH, including more than $60 million in 2015 alone. Please tell NIH to stop funding cruel and abusive experiments on mice and to redirect that money toward the development of superior, non-animal testing methods instead.
4. Paul W. Barras, Primate Products, Inc.
The name of Paul W. Barras’ company, Primate Products, Inc. (PPI), says it all. PPI treats the nonhuman primates imprisoned in its facilities like expendable commodities to be bought, sold, and both physically and psychologically abused. This shameful company imports monkeys from Southeast Asia and Africa, warehouses them at its decrepit compound in Hendry County, Florida, and sells them to laboratories for cruel and deadly experiments.
In 2015, horrifying footage captured by PETA during its eyewitness investigation into PPI shows workers grabbing terrified monkeys by their sensitive tails, prying them off fences, and hurling them into nets. Workers pushed monkeys’ internal tissues, which protruded from their anuses—possibly as a result of stress—back into their bodies. One monkey who’d plucked out her hair was housed in a cage for more than five months with other monkeys who repeatedly attacked her. Monkeys with painful injuries, including exposed bones, were denied veterinary care for days.
PETA’s eyewitness investigation prompted federal authorities to cite the facility for more than two dozen violations of animal-welfare regulations related to inadequate veterinary care, neglect, violent handling, unsafe and unsanitary conditions, and failure to address monkeys’ psychological suffering effectively.
The suffering of these monkeys at PPI is just the beginning of their misery. That’s because this company sells them to experimenters, including those at Charles River Laboratories, SNBL USA, Columbia University, and the University of Pittsburgh. PPI has also been awarded federal contracts worth more than $13 million—from agencies including the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Army, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In July 2016, PPI failed once again to comply with even woefully inadequate federal animal-welfare regulations. As reported by the New Times Broward-Palm Beach, a monkey was found dead at PPI “trapped between an internal swinging gate and the post supporting it.” It is unclear whether the monkey died of suffocation, decapitation, or dehydration or whether the death was instantaneous or involved prolonged pain and distress. Regardless, it’s just the latest example of the disdain with which PPI treats these animals.
Problems at PPI extend beyond animal welfare to public health concerns regarding the Zika virus. The New Times writes, “Recently, with the latest Zika outbreak in South Florida, there have been concerns that Primate Products will become a Zika incubator since primates are kept in outdoor cages and can also carry the virus. Infected monkeys have already been discovered in Zika-affected towns in Brazil.”
A monkey named Loretta endured a life of pain and loneliness at PPI. You can read her heartbreaking story here and then take action to urge PPI to release information about Loretta’s present-day whereabouts.
5. Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories USA
Every year, Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories USA (SNBL), a contract testing company based in Everett, Washington, is hired to torment tens of thousands of primates, dogs, rabbits, and other animals in painful and lethal experiments to test products for other companies. SNBL has also imported thousands of primates into the U.S.
Several SNBL insiders have contacted PETA to report abysmal conditions and abuse. A whistleblower who had worked at SNBL for years leaked photographs and video footage depicting sick and injured monkeys suffering from deplorably cruel and invasive experiments. Earlier, a whistleblower revealed that a monkey had been scalded to death when her cage was put into a high-temperature, mechanical cage washer while she was still inside it.
Federal inspectors have also found cruelty and neglect inside SNBL’s laboratories. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspection and investigation reports reveal hundreds of violations of the federal Animal Welfare Act. In 2010, the FDA cited SNBL for failing to ensure that employees charged with providing oversight for the thousands of animals at SNBL were properly trained.
Violations have shown that SNBL has failed to provide suffering animals with safe and adequate housing, veterinary treatment, and proper pain relief measures. During one three-week period, 20 monkeys died from “extreme weight loss” and “emaciation.” One monkey became so ill that she lost 32 percent of her bodyweight within 25 days of an experiment. Seven weeks into the chemical test, she had become sickened to the point of losing her appetite entirely. Despite this massive weight loss, the monkey continued to be dosed with the test chemical. She became lethargic and dehydrated, suffered from diarrhea, and had infected wounds on her body and tail. After three terrible months, she was finally put out of her misery and euthanized. A USDA report from 2011 documented that 78 percent of the monkeys at SNBL are caged alone—in violation of federal law—unable to touch or interact in any way with other monkeys. This is so distressing to monkeys that they develop stress-induced abnormal behavior such as self-mutilation, incessant rocking, and hair-pulling.
In the fall of 2016, the USDA slapped SNBL with an administrative lawsuit for dozens of documented violations of the AWA from 2011 to 2016 that have led to horrific suffering and death for many animals. Twenty-five monkeys died from dehydration after being denied veterinary care when they arrived in Houston from Cambodia and were then trucked hundreds of miles, and an infant monkey died from trauma and hypothermia after becoming trapped while trying to escape through a fence. Six monkeys died when they were subjected to botched surgeries performed by unqualified personnel. Other monkeys died after becoming entangled in a cable or suffered from hyperthermia and seizures. And yet another monkey suffocated to death after SNBL staff failed to notice that his head had become stuck in his cage.
The USDA settled its administrative lawsuit against SNBL for $185,000—a significant amount for the USDA but a drop in the bucket for the massive international animal exploiter. Just one day before this settlement amount was announced, the company was cited for additional violations that involved hitting caged monkeys, the death of a monkey by strangulation, and the death of an infant monkey who was taken from her cage and then returned to the wrong mother.
SNBL is a dirty player in an ugly business, and PETA continues to urge the National Institutes of Health to pull the permit that allows it to receive tax dollars in the form of federal contracts.
Help keep primates away from SNBL by asking airlines that still transport them to laboratories to stop their participation in the violent industry.
6. Mike Addy, Tier 1 Group, LLC
Mike Addy is the CEO of the notorious military training contractor Tier 1 Group, LLC, which became the poster child for the military’s cruel war on animals when PETA released a horrific eyewitness video of a trauma training drill conducted by the company for the U.S. Coast Guard. The footage showed live goats whose limbs were broken and cut off with tree trimmers, whose organs were yanked out, and whose abdomens were stabbed while they moaned and kicked in apparent pain.
Complaints filed by PETA resulted in an “Official Warning” from the USDA to the company for violating the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA) by providing the goats it was mutilating with inadequate anesthetics. The disturbing case also prompted members of Congress to request an investigation by the Department of Defense (DOD) Office of Inspector General into why Tier 1 Group continues to be awarded contracts despite its history of violations of animal-welfare laws.
In 2012, Tier 1 Group—which has been cited for violations of the AWA for years—cut apart, shot, stabbed, and killed more than 1,000 pigs and goats in archaic trauma training drills like the one seen in the eyewitness video. That constitutes approximately 10 percent of the 10,000 animals each year who are tormented in training exercises for military personnel.
Tier 1 Group, other contractors, and the DOD itself continue to conduct these cruel exercises, even though nearly 80 percent of the U.S.’ NATO allies have confirmed that they do not use any animals for military medical training—and even some U.S. military facilities have replaced animal laboratories with superior lifelike simulators that breathe, bleed, and “die.”
Following discussions with PETA, the U.S. Army substantially scaled back its use of animals and required that more personnel be trained exclusively with advanced simulators and other non-animal methods. In 2017, the Coast Guard became the first branch of the Armed Forces to eliminate the use of animals.
PETA continues to call on government officials to take immediate action to replace the use of animals in military medical training completely with humane and superior non-animal methods.
7. Fabrizio Freda, Estée Lauder
For more than two decades, Estée Lauder was one of the largest and best-known companies on PETA’s cruelty-free cosmetics list. Estée Lauder is the parent of many subsidiaries and brands, including its namesake brand, MAC Cosmetics, Clinique, Bobbi Brown, La Mer, and Origins, among others. But in 2012, PETA learned that when Estée Lauder and many of its subsidiaries decided to expand their business into China, the company started paying for tests in which chemicals are applied to rabbits’ sensitive eyes and rubbed onto animals’ bare skin. Estée Lauder apparently did not challenge the Chinese government’s demand for painful animal tests—which only duplicate safety information already gleaned from non-animal tests—but simply rolled over and paid for the tests. Moreover, Estée Lauder did not inform PETA or consumers that its policies had changed and continued marketing its products as “cruelty-free.”
Truly cruelty-free companies such as Paul Mitchell and Juice Beauty have taken a stand and chosen to pull out of the Chinese market—or even decided not to enter it—until regulations in that country no longer require tests on animals. Since first exposing that some formerly cruelty-free companies were quietly paying for tests on animals to sell their products in China, PETA has been working with and funding expert scientists, who have been talking with Chinese officials and scientists about non-animal testing methods and working with them to help get these methods approved and end the country’s requirement for cruel and archaic tests on animals for cosmetics.
You can help put a stop to animal testing. Check out PETA’s online searchable database of companies that do and that don’t test on animals or order your own free copy of PETA’s global Cruelty-Free Shopping Guide today and vow to buy only products that have not been tested on animals.
Please also take a moment to let Estée Lauder know that you are disappointed in its backsliding and that you will no longer buy its products as long as they are tested on animals.
8. Kenneth C. Frazier, Merck
Every year, pharmaceutical multinational Merck subjects tens of thousands of animals—including dogs, monkeys, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, sheep, rats, and mice—to cruel and painful experiments in which they are poisoned, infected, mutilated, and killed. Animals are force-fed massive quantities of Merck’s experimental drugs—even though the National Institutes of Health admits that more than 95 percent of all drugs that are shown to be safe and effective in animal tests fail or cause harm in human trials.
Merck has been cited repeatedly for abuse of animals in its laboratories, including caging highly social primates in isolation, using inadequate procedures for anesthesia, failing to provide veterinary care, and failing to consider alternatives to painful procedures on animals. Merck also failed to document whether pain relief was given to dogs who were used in painful experiments, and the company has even been cited for misrepresenting the number of animals used in painful experiments in a report submitted to the federal government.
Merck contracted out animal tests to a company called Professional Laboratory and Research Services, which was shut down by federal authorities in 2010 after a PETA eyewitness investigation revealed sadistic treatment of animals, including denying sick and injured animals veterinary care, as well as throwing, kicking, and dragging dogs and cats and slamming them into cages. Merck had contracted with this facility since at least 1996.
PETA has repeatedly used shareholder resolutions to hold Merck to account for its appalling treatment of animals in its own laboratories and at contract facilities. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently requires that new pharmaceuticals be tested using crude and cruel tests in which drugs are pumped into animals’ bodies, slowly poisoning them. Please ask the FDA to accept superior non-animal methods in place of archaic and unreliable animal tests.
9. Giovanni Caforio, M.D., Bristol-Myers Squibb
Each year, pharmaceutical giant Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) torments and kills tens of thousands of animals—including dogs, nonhuman primates, rabbits, hamsters, and guinea pigs—in cruel and painful tests in which they have experimental drugs forced down their throats. According to annual reports filed with the federal government, some dogs and monkeys who are used in painful experiments at BMS are intentionally not given any pain relief at all. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than 95 percent of experimental drugs that appear promising in animal tests go on to fail in human clinical trials.
A concerned insider at BMS recently informed PETA that callousness and negligence in the company’s laboratories compound the animals’ suffering. The whistleblower reported that a monkey and rat endured terrifying and excruciatingly painful deaths when their cages were run through the company’s boiling-hot cage washer—with the animals still inside. Another monkey hanged to death in her cage after she was clipped to the front of it to be weighed and left unattended. After PETA filed formal complaints with federal authorities, the U.S. Department of Agriculture cited the company for violations of the AWA and took the additional rare step of fining the facility for the violations. Although the fine of $2,625 was a drop in the bucket for this multibillion-dollar corporation, any fine at all by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) signifies the seriousness of the violations.
As a Fortune 500 company with annual revenues exceeding $19 billion, BMS certainly has the resources to ensure that federal regulations are followed, but it would seem that the company simply doesn’t care. PETA has taken its case to BMS’ shareholders, filing shareholder resolutions to advance concerns regarding the treatment of animals and to encourage BMS to adopt non-animal testing methods.
10. Anne Rigail, Air France
While not a testing laboratory itself, Air France is one of the last airlines in the world that still accepts blood money to transport primates to deadly fates in laboratories. Each year, it ships some of the tens of thousands of nonhuman primates who are ripped from their homes in the wild or bred on squalid monkey factory farms and flown around the world to be abused and killed in cruel and painful experiments.
While nearly every major airline in the world—including Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, American Airlines, US Airways, China Eastern Airlines, Air China, Hainan Airlines, El Al Airlines, and dozens of others—has banned the transportation of primates destined for laboratories, Air France continues to profit from its participation in this violent industry.
The primates Air France ships to laboratories are separated from their families and locked in dark, terrifying cargo holds—right below the feet of unsuspecting passengers—for as long as 30 hours. Then they are delivered to facilities that will poison or otherwise torment them, cut them up, and kill them.
According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in 2014, nearly 23,000 primates were imported to the U.S. for use in experiments—nearly every single one of them by air from countries in Asia and Africa. As more and more cargo and passenger airlines have refused to transport primates for the animal experimentation industry, laboratories have had difficulty getting their hands on monkeys to mutilate and poison in experiments. Holdouts like Air France continue to facilitate the cruelty perpetrated in laboratories.
Tell Air France that you won’t be flying with the airline until it stops transporting primates to laboratories.
11. Ian C. Read, Pfizer
Every year, Pfizer subjects animals to cruel and lethal experiments. In 2015, the company experimented on 615 dogs, 1,142 primates, 303 guinea pigs, 34 hamsters, 427 rabbits, 338 ferrets, and 258 cotton rats—in its own laboratories. Many of these animals were forced to endure painful experiments, and some of the dogs, primates, ferrets, and cotton rats were denied pain relief. These numbers don’t even include mice and rats or any of the animals tormented for Pfizer experiments in contract testing laboratories.
According to a federal report, in one Pfizer experiment conducted a few years ago, 13 dogs showed painful toxic effects. In another experiment, 81 dogs experienced varying degrees of lameness and pain, which was not treated. In a past experiment involving cats, the report notes that 14 cats experienced varying degrees of lameness and pain, which was not alleviated through pain relief. One hundred and eleven horses were repeatedly injected with snake venom and subjected to large blood draws. Such painful experimentation can cause horses to become ill, lose weight, and become anemic. No pain relief was provided.
In addition, federal inspections of Pfizer’s animal laboratories revealed multiple violations of animal-protection regulations. Inside the laboratories, the body of a cat missing for nearly a month was found in a drain line, a dog was scalded to death by the automatic cage washer, and other animals endured stress and untreated infections in a laboratory reeking of excrement. Macaque monkeys had stress-induced hair loss on 50 percent of their bodies, and other animals, in their traumatized condition, chewed and pulled the hair out of their cagemates. Pfizer was also cited for the failure of its animal experimentation oversight body to ensure that experimenters who cut into animals had conducted a search for alternatives.
Like Merck, Pfizer contracted out animal tests to Professional Laboratory and Research Services, which was shut down by federal authorities after a PETA eyewitness investigation revealed sadistic treatment of animals—including sick and injured animals being denied veterinary care; dogs and cats being slammed into cages, thrown, kicked, and dragged; and dogs and cats being pressure-hosed with a bleach solution.
PETA has repeatedly used shareholder resolutions to hold Pfizer to account for its appalling treatment of animals in its own laboratories and at contract facilities, but the company has rebuffed PETA’s efforts and refused to take responsibility for its cruelty and violations of federal law.
Read about PETA’s shareholder resolution campaign.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently requires that new pharmaceuticals be tested using crude and cruel tests in which drugs are pumped into animals’ bodies, slowly poisoning them. Please ask the FDA to accept superior non-animal methods in place of archaic and unreliable animal tests.
12. Scott Marshall, Marshall Farms Group Ltd.
Marshall Farms is one of the world’s largest breeders of beagles, ferrets, minipigs, and hound dogs for sale to experimentation laboratories. The company also sells blood, blood products, and tissue derived from animals. With facilities in the U.S., Europe, India, China, South Korea, and Japan, Marshall is a global purveyor of misery and death.
In the U.S., Marshall has been cited for more than 20 violations of federal animal-welfare regulations in the last five years, including housing dogs and ferrets in filthy, decrepit wire cages in buildings infested with mice and flies and failing to provide animals with adequate veterinary care. Although U.S. regulations require that cages holding dogs be “large” enough to permit the dog only to stand up, sit down, lie down, and turn around, Marshall failed to provide dogs with even that amount of space—and dogs sustained injuries as a result.
In 2012, a whistleblower worked with PETA India to expose Marshall’s Chinese facility for lying to authorities in declaring that the 70 beagles the company was shipping to India were “pets” who would not “be hurt or killed as Lab Animal [sic],” when, in fact, the dogs were headed to a laboratory where they were slated to be used in cruel and deadly poisoning tests.
Thankfully, Marshall faces intense opposition worldwide. In the U.K., Marshall-owned B & K Universal was blocked from opening a new facility after protests by PETA U.K. and others. And in 2012, Marshall’s Italian dog factory farm—Green Hill—was shut down by government officials after allegations that dogs there were mistreated. In 2015, three members of management at Green Hill were found guilty of “unjustified killing and mistreatment of dogs” and sentenced to 12 to 18 months.
Many of the dogs that Marshall breeds and sells are used in crude and cruel tests—required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)—in which large doses of pharmaceutical drugs are pumped into their bodies, slowly poisoning them. Please ask the FDA to accept superior non-animal methods in place of archaic and unreliable animal tests.