No. Many leading medical schools, including Harvard, Yale, and Stanford, now use innovative, clinical teaching methods instead of animal laboratories. Harvard Cardiac Anesthesia Practicum, which allows students to observe human heart bypass operations, has eliminated any need for the old dog lab, in which students gave dogs drugs that induced heart attacks. Many students all over the world now graduate without harming any animals. In Great Britain, it is against the law for medical students to practice surgery on animals, and British physicians are as competent as those educated elsewhere.